Professional and Graduate Education

Carnegie has a long history in the study of professional education, beginning with The Flexner Report in 1910 and legal education in the 1930s. In this tradition, Carnegie investigated preparation for several professions between 1997 and 2009 and also examined the doctorate as the professional degree for college and university teachers. These studies include:


Carnegie Initiative on the Doctorate

The CID was a five year action and research project that worked with doctoral-granting departments committed to restructuring their programs to better prepare graduates. Six disciplines were included: chemistry, education, English, history, mathematics and neuroscience.

Senior Staff

Major Publications

The Formation of Scholars: Rethinking Doctoral Education for the Twenty-First Century
George Walker, Chris M. Golde, Laura Jones, Andrea Conklin Bueschel, Pat Hutchings. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2008.

Envisioning the Future of Doctoral Education: Preparing Stewards of the Discipline—Carnegie Essays on the Doctorate
Chris M. Golde and George E. Walker. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2006.

Carnegie eLibrary

 


Carnegie Project on the Education Doctorate (CPED)

The Carnegie Project on the Education Doctorate (CPED) has engaged over 50 colleges and schools of education [4] in a critical examination of the doctorate in education through dialog, experimentation, critical feedback and evaluation. The intent of the project is to collaboratively redesign the Ed.D. and to make it a stronger and more relevant degree for the advanced preparation of school practitioners and clinical faculty, academic leaders and professional staff for the nation’s schools and colleges and the learning organizations that support them. More about CPED »

Senior Staff

Online Resources

 


 Preparation for the Professions Program (PPP)

The PPP investigated the preparation for various professions offered by academic institutions, and compared across professions the approaches to teaching and learning that these institutions used to ensure the development of professional understanding, skills and integrity.

The program included studies of clergy, engineering, legal, medical and nursing education. The initiative also produced a special study on implications for liberal education.  

Senior Staff



Clergy Education Study

The Carnegie Foundation studied the academic preparation of Protestant, Catholic and Jewish clergy. Through intensive documentation of a cross-section of theological schools, the study sought to understand, broadly, how theological education fosters the development of a pastoral imagination that has the capacity to integrate professional knowledge and skills with moral integrity and religious commitment.

Senior Staff

Major Publication

Educating Clergy: Teaching Practices and Pastoral Imagination
Charles R. Foster, Lisa Dahill, Larry Golemon, Barbara Wang Tolentino. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2005.

 


Engineering Education Study

Carnegie's multi-year study of undergraduate engineering education in the United States involved intensive fieldwork, including on-site observation of 11 electrical and mechanical engineering programs at a cross section of U.S. engineering schools. The study was funded by Carnegie and The Atlantic Philanthropies.

Senior Staff

Major publication

Educating Engineers: Designing for the Future of the Field
Sheri D. Sheppard, Kelly Macatangay, Anne Colby, and William M. Sullivan. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2008.

Carnegie eLibrary



Legal Education Study

Carnegie’s study of legal education involved a comprehensive look at teaching and learning in American and Canadian law schools today. Intensive field work was conducted at a cross-section of 16 law schools during the 1999-2000 academic year.

Senior Staff

Major publication

Educating Lawyers: Preparation for the Profession of Law
William M. Sullivan, Anne Colby, Judith Welch Wegner, Lloyd Bond, Lee S. Shulman. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2007.

Carnegie eLibrary

 


Medical Education Study

In the medical education study, the team investigated both the common challenges of preparing physicians for complex practice and some of the distinctive curricula, pedagogies and assessment practices that have been developed to meet these challenges. The investigation focused on the professional development of physicians-in-training at three key points in their clinical education: 1) the early exposure to “doctoring”; 2) the third year clerkships; and 3) the residency. At each level, three forms of learning were examined: learning the knowledge to think like a physician, learning skills to perform skillfully, and learning professionalism to act responsibly. Outcomes of the study include examples of innovative curricular structures, promising pedagogies and thoughtful approaches to assessment, all of which support the professional development of learners; a critique of inadequate educational practices; and a series of recommendations for strengthening clinical education.

Senior Staff

Major Publication

Educating Physicians: A Call for Reform of Medical School and Residency
Molly Cooke, David M. Irby and Bridget C. O'Brien. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2010.  

Carnegie eLibrary

 


Nursing Education Study

In its study of nursing education, the Foundation sought to understand the demands of learning to be a nurse and the most effective strategies for teaching nursing. As part of Carnegie’s Preparation for the Professions Program (PPP), this study took a comparative perspective to the issues of teaching, learning, assessment, and curriculum in nursing education.

The PPP has identified three dimensions of or apprenticeships for professional education. In nursing education these are high-end apprenticeships and include the following:

Senior Staff

Major Publication

Educating Nurses: A Call for Radical Transformation
Patricia Benner, Molly Sutphen, Victoria Leonard and Lisa Day. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2009.  

Carnegie eLibrary

 


Liberal Education Study

Carnegie's study of liberal education brought together educators from six professional fields with faculty from the liberal arts and sciences to focus on the interdependence of liberal education and professional training.

Senior Staff

Major Publication

A New Agenda for Higher Education: Shaping a Life of the Mind for Practice
William M. Sullivan, Matthew S. Rosin. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2008.  

Carnegie Perspectives